 Sir Isaac Newton who propounded the corpuscular theory of light in 17th Century considered light as a shower of minute particles. This concept explained the rectilinear propagation of light and reflection of light from a plane surface. But it failed to explain the phenomena of Newton's rings, Interference and Diffraction. Christian Huygens postulated wave theory which was later refined by Fresnel whereby Newton's rings, interference, diffraction and polarization were explained. The fact remains that certain assumptions were made about the manner in which wave propagates, like formation of secondary waves, the medium of propagation of light waves being aether etc., With Max Planck postulating that radiation is emitted from a black body in discrete quanta called photons, instead of being continuous, the corpuscular theory of light was back into reckoning. The Compton effect and Photoelectric effect endorse the particle nature of light. However Louis de Broglie postulated the dual nature of matter i.e. each particle has a matter wave associated with it and thus bridged the particle theory and wave theory of light. Dual nature of matter or radiation is presently accepted concept of nature of light.

# The wave theory of light has the following deficiencies:

The medium of propagation of light wave originally considered as aether was found to be mysterious. The velocity of propagation of light in aether, equal to the square root of E upon d gave the medium (aether) a very high value of elastic modulus (E) and very low density (d). Aether could not be detected in the Michelson - Morley experiment. Maxwell's equations do not take into account aether as medium. Bose-Einstein statistics considered light as photons with definite velocity and the photon gas is supposed to exert pressure on the walls of the container. Here also the concept of aether was not taken into consideration. Since a medium is required for propagation of any wave and energy is transmitted from the vibrating source through the medium by vibration of particles in the medium, lack of a definite medium makes the wave theory of light rather incomplete.

The Big Bang model in Cosmology depicts the origin and the evolution of the Universe. The shifting of D1 D2 lines of the spectrums of the celestial bodies towards red end is called Red Shift. The farther the Celestial body - a Star, a Galaxy or a cluster of Galaxies, the greater is the red shift. Using the Doppler shift analogy assuming that the Light is a Wave, the red shift is interpreted as the receding of the source of light away from the observer viz. Earth. The edge of the Universe is perceived to be about 13.5 Billion light years away from the Earth going by the red shift of D1 D2 lines of celestial bodies in the edge of the Universe. Extrapolating the phenomina backwards, about 13.5 billion years ago the entire mass of the Universe was supposed to be condensed into a compact mass called Cosmic Egg which exploded in a 'Big Bang'. Since then the Universe is supposed to be expanding. The point remains that the Red Shift of the Celestial bodies in the edge of the Universe is also measured by D1 D2 lines shift. Going by the time frame of the Big Bang model, the edge of the Universe represents the initial stage of the Big Bang and at this stage even sub-atomic particle are not supposed to be formed. But the presence of the element Sodium, which gives rise to D1 D2 lines makes the entire model of 'Big Bang' highly doubtful. This illusion of expanding Universe is on account of applying 'Wave Nature' to light as also due to applying Doppler shift analogy of accoustics to Red Shift of D1 D2 lines.

The Wave length of radio waves runs into meters and kilometers when the corresponding photons, going by the concept of Dual nature of matter, originate from the micro world - from a vibrating electron, atom etc.

# A New Discovery of Nature of Light

Dual Nature of Light is the currently accepted description of the nature of Light by scientific community. However the Author proceeds to explain Interference and Diffraction with an alternative approach with the proposal of a "fluid layer" based on the experiments conducted afresh.

This fluid layer is found adhering on all solid and liquid surfaces in normal atmospheric conditions. The fluid state is assumed to be an intermediate state between a gas and a liquid. The fringes are nothing but ripples of density that are formed due to mechanical pressure exerted on this layer as also due to thermal cause.

Interference fringes and Diffraction patterns are explained in terms of absorption, refraction and scattering of photons in the density ripples existing in the fluid layer.

Since an alternative explanation for Interference and diffraction pattern is given by means of Particle Nature of Light, Wave Nature of Light can be dispensed with. Hence photons are the only description of light and photons are to be designated by their mass and velocity.

On account of the above flaws of the 'Wave Nature of Light' the Author was impelled to conclude that the Wave Nature of Light was a mere brain wave invented to explain the phenomena of Interference and Diffraction, as Sir Isaac Newton failed to explain these phenomena with corpuscular theory of Light.

• The Author conducted the original experiments relating to Interference and Diffraction afresh with varied samples and concluded that the above phenomena can be explained by Particle nature of Light itself without taking recourse to Wave nature of Light.

• The alternative explanation for Interference patterns and Diffraction fringes is found on the basis of a thin fluid layer of about a half a millimeter thickness found adhereing on all solid and liquid surfaces in normal atmospheric conditions.

• This fluid layer, formed by the ambient gases, is a state between a gas and a liquid. The Interference and Diffraction patterns can be explained in terms of ripple like density changes that take place in the fluid layer or in the combination of fluid layers when different surfaces are brought together.

• These density changes are brought about by exertion of pressure and due to thermal causes as discussed in the Interference and Diffraction experiments.